Tom RayTom Ray
Published on
Last updated:

Deploying a NestJS app to Cloud Run with Github Actions

This is a quick start guide to deploying a NestJs project to Cloud Run.

We'll first setup the deployment manually, then move to an automated CD (continuous deployment) workflow using Github Actions.

Ready? Let's dive in 🤿.

Here's the Github repository if you'd like to review the code.

NestJS logo
Get Free NestJS Cheat SheetGet access to my free NestJS cheat sheet and learn tips and advanced techniques to improve your developer workflow and NestJS applications in production.
Table of Contents


  • Your Nest project is a Github repository. This allows us to setup continuous deployment with Github Actions.
  • Docker installed on your machine
  • A project setup in Google Cloud Platform
  • Have the gcloud CLI installed on your machine

Start a NestJS project

Incase you don't have a NestJS project setup already, set one up with the Nest CLI:

$ npm i -g @nestjs/cli
$ nest new project-name

Follow the prompts to setup your project.

Configure a PORT environment variable

Cloud Run will automatically inject the PORT number, so you'll need to edit the default bootstrap function which starts the server.

Here's the default:

async function bootstrap() {
  const app = await NestFactory.create(AppModule)
  await app.listen(3000)

You'll need to update this to the following:

async function bootstrap() {
  const app = await NestFactory.create(AppModule)
  await app.listen(parseInt(process.env.PORT) || 3000)

Now locally if you don't have a port variable set in your env file, it will default to 3000.

If, however, you try testing this locally by using a custom PORT environment variable and starting up your local server, you'll notice it doesn't work.

That's because in order to use environment variables in NestJS you need to make the .env file accessible.

To do that "the Nest way", install the required dependency:

npm i --save @nestjs/config

Then use the package in the root AppModule:

import { ConfigModule } from '@nestjs/config';

  imports: [ConfigModule.forRoot()],
export class AppModule {}

You can now set a custom PORT value in your env file and test it locally to check that it's working.

Cloud Run will take care of the port for you on production, so you don't need to manually set a PORT env variable in your Cloud Run secrets.

For a more detailed look at working with environment variables in NestJS, check out this tutorial.

Prepare the Docker image

In order to deploy to Cloud Run, you need a container image.

A container image is an isolated package of software that includes everything you need to run the code. You can define container images by writing a Dockerfile which provides the instructions on how to build the image.

This tutorial won't go into the details of how to write a production optimized Dockerfile for NestJS apps, however, here's a Dockerfile set up to achieve just that:


FROM node:18-alpine As development

# Create app directory
WORKDIR /usr/src/app

# Copy application dependency manifests to the container image.
# A wildcard is used to ensure copying both package.json AND package-lock.json (when available).
# Copying this first prevents re-running npm install on every code change.
COPY --chown=node:node package*.json ./

# Install app dependencies using the `npm ci` command instead of `npm install`
RUN npm ci

# Bundle app source
COPY --chown=node:node . .

# Use the node user from the image (instead of the root user)
USER node


FROM node:18-alpine As build

WORKDIR /usr/src/app

COPY --chown=node:node package*.json ./

# In order to run `npm run build` we need access to the Nest CLI which is a dev dependency. In the previous development stage we ran `npm ci` which installed all dependencies, so we can copy over the node_modules directory from the development image
COPY --chown=node:node --from=development /usr/src/app/node_modules ./node_modules

COPY --chown=node:node . .

# Run the build command which creates the production bundle
RUN npm run build

# Set NODE_ENV environment variable
ENV NODE_ENV production

# Running `npm ci` removes the existing node_modules directory and passing in --only=production ensures that only the production dependencies are installed. This ensures that the node_modules directory is as optimized as possible
RUN npm ci --only=production && npm cache clean --force

USER node


FROM node:18-alpine As production

# Copy the bundled code from the build stage to the production image
COPY --chown=node:node --from=build /usr/src/app/node_modules ./node_modules
COPY --chown=node:node --from=build /usr/src/app/dist ./dist

# Start the server using the production build
CMD [ "node", "dist/main.js" ]

Similar to a .gitignore file, we can add a .dockerignore file which will prevent certain files from being included in the image build.

touch .dockerignore

Then exclude the following files from the image build:


Test the container locally

Before pushing this up to Cloud Run, let's now do some testing locally to check if the Dockerfile behaves as we expect.

Let's first build the image using the command in your terminal at the root of your project (you can swap out nest-cloud-run with your project name). Don't forget the .!

docker build -t nest-cloud-run .

You can verify the image has been created by running docker images which will output a list of Docker images you have on your local machine:

docker images
REPOSITORY                   TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED          SIZE
nest-cloud-run               latest    004f7f222139   31 seconds ago   114MB

Let's now start the container and run the image with this command (be sure to same image name used above):

docker run -p80:3000 nest-cloud-run

You can now access the NestJS app by visiting http://localhost in your browser (just http://localhost without any port numbers).

Manually deploying to Cloud Run

Before setting up automated deployments when changes are pushed to your Git repo, let's first do a manual deployment using the gcloud CLI.

Doing a manual deployment via the gcloud CLI will setup the Cloud Run service for us rather than needing to manually create inside the GCP console.

Check your gcloud CLI project is set

You might have multiple accounts and projects in your GCP account, so you'll want to make sure you create the Cloud Run service in the right one.

First you can check the current active project the gcloud CLI is using by running:

gcloud config get-value project

If that command returns the ID of the project you want to create the Cloud Run service in, great! Skip down to the next section. Otherwise, follow the next steps:

Make sure you're authenticated into the correct account:

gcloud auth list
* account 1
  account 2

You need to be authenticated in the account where your project lives, so change account if necessary with:

gcloud config set account `ACCOUNT`

List out the projects in the account your authenticated in:

gcloud projects list

And finally, switch to the intended project:

gcloud config set project `PROJECT ID`

Use gcloud run deploy

We're now going to use the gcloud run deploy command which feels a bit like magic - so let's breakdown what happens behind the scenes:

  • Uses Cloud Build to build the container image (using the Dockerfile as instructions)
  • The container is stored in Artifact Registry
  • Creates a service in Cloud Run against the container image

For this step, you can either follow the Cloud Run docs (recommended) or follow the steps below.

Run the following command in your terminal at the root of your project:

gcloud run deploy

If prompted to enable the API, Reply y to enable.

  1. When you are prompted for the source code location, press Enter to deploy the current folder.
  2. When you are prompted for the service name, press Enter to accept the default name.
  3. If you are prompted to enable the Artifact Registry API, respond by pressing y.
  4. When you are prompted for region: select the region of your choice, for example, us-central1.
  5. You will be prompted to allow unauthenticated invocations: respond y .

Then wait a few moments until the deployment is complete. On success, the command line displays the service URL.

Visit your deployed service by opening the service URL in a web browser.

Automated deployments with Github Actions

Okay, let's setup some automation with Github Actions!

Enable Google Cloud APIs

Before proceeding, make sure the following are enabled inside your Google Cloud Platform account:

Just click the above 3 links and ensure you've pressed the 'Enable' button on each.

Create a service account with permissions

We're going to do the next couple of steps inside the GCP console rather than via the gcloud CLI - I'm a more visual dude so that's what I prefer!

As we're setting up the deployments to Cloud Run in a 3rd party environment (Github), we need a way of giving access to Github to run the deployment.

That's where service accounts come in.

A service account allows 'non-human' users to interact with Google APIs - exactly what we need to work with Github.

So if you first go to create a service account:

Create service account

And then add the service account details (something like 'Github Action' makes sense):

Service account name

Then in the next step. grant the following roles:

  • Cloud Run Admin
  • Cloud Run Service Agent
  • Cloud Build Editor
  • Storage Admin
  • Artifact Registry Administrator
Service account permissions

You can skip the final step where it prompts you to grant users access to this service account.

Configure Workflow Identity Federation

The Github Action we're going to setup in the next step has essentially 2 steps:

  1. Authenticate the service account to make deployments to your Cloud Run project
  2. Deploy your application to Cloud Run (this step takes care of building the image, too)

For the authentication step, you can either use Workflow Identity or use a credentials JSON file. Google recommends Workflow Identity so that's what we're going to setup now.

Head to Workload Identity Federation and press the 'Create Pool' button:

Create workload identity pool

Give your identity pool a name like 'Github Auth':

Workload identity name

In the next step for adding a provider to pool, set the following:

  • Choose OpenID Connect (OIDC) in the 'Select a provider' dropdown
  • Define a provider name (e.g. Github Action)
  • Define a provider ID (e.g. github-action). This might be set automatically for you.
  • For the issuer URL, use
  • Leave the audience set to 'Default audience'
Add workload identity provider

In the next step, add the following 3 provider attributes:

  • google-subject = assertion.sub
  • =
  • attribute.repository = assertion.repository
Set workload identity provider attributes

Then hit the save button.

Copy the IAM principal value of the pool to your clipboard. We'll need this in an upcoming step.

IAM principal value

The final step is to connect the service account we created in the previous step to the Pool we just created.

To do that, head to the Service Accounts page and go into the service account you created in the previous step:

List of GCP service accounts

From there, go into the Permissions tab and press the 'Grant Access' button to add a new principal with a role-specific to our pool.

Grant new IAM principal

For the 'New principal' field, you'll want to append 2 strings together:

  • The IAM principal value you copied to your clipboard above
  • And /attribute.repository/${REPO} (You'll want to replace ${REPO} with your Github repo using the format username/repo. For example, mine would be tomwray13/nest-cloud-run)

Together, mine looks like this:


Use this string in the 'New principal' field and set the role as Workload Identity User:

Add new IAM principal

And that's it! Now to building our Github Action.

Add Github Action

Let's first go to the 'Actions' tab in your Github repo and search for cloud run. Press the configure button on the 'Deploy to Cloud Run from source' workflow:

Github Action search

This is the official workflow written by the GCP team and what we'll be using to build our Github Action.

There are some helpful comments in the workflow which explain the setup required. We've already covered this setup in the previous steps, but it's worth reading to ensure everything is setup correctly.

If we remove the setup related comments from the workflow, we'll have this:

name: Deploy to Cloud Run from Source

      - main

  PROJECT_ID: YOUR_PROJECT_ID # TODO: update Google Cloud project id
  SERVICE: YOUR_SERVICE_NAME # TODO: update Cloud Run service name
  REGION: YOUR_SERVICE_REGION # TODO: update Cloud Run service region

    # Add 'id-token' with the intended permissions for workload identity federation
      contents: 'read'
      id-token: 'write'

    runs-on: ubuntu-latest
      - name: Checkout
        uses: actions/checkout@v2

      - name: Google Auth
        id: auth
        uses: 'google-github-actions/auth@v0'
          workload_identity_provider: '${{ secrets.WIF_PROVIDER }}' # e.g. - projects/123456789/locations/global/workloadIdentityPools/my-pool/providers/my-provider
          service_account: '${{ secrets.WIF_SERVICE_ACCOUNT }}' # e.g. -

      - name: Deploy to Cloud Run
        id: deploy
        uses: google-github-actions/deploy-cloudrun@v0
          service: ${{ env.SERVICE }}
          region: ${{ env.REGION }}
          # NOTE: If required, update to the appropriate source folder
          source: ./

      # If required, use the Cloud Run url output in later steps
      - name: Show Output
        run: echo ${{ steps.deploy.outputs.url }}

So we now just need to take care of the environment variables and secrets.

For the environment variables:

  PROJECT_ID: YOUR_PROJECT_ID # TODO: update Google Cloud project id
  SERVICE: YOUR_SERVICE_NAME # TODO: update Cloud Run service name
  REGION: YOUR_SERVICE_REGION # TODO: update Cloud Run service region

Update the YOUR_PROJECT_ID to your GCP project ID.

For the YOUR_SERVICE_NAME and YOUR_SERVICE_REGION, these were defined earlier on in the step where we manually deployed using the gcloud CLI.

You can easily find these by going to Cloud Run in the GCP console and this info will be available in the table.

For example:

Google Cloud Run credentials

So I'll update my env variables to:

  PROJECT_ID: direct-album-348214
  SERVICE: nest-cloud-run
  REGION: europe-west1

And the final step is to add the secrets required in the authentication step:

- name: Google Auth
  id: auth
  uses: 'google-github-actions/auth@v0'
    workload_identity_provider: '${{ secrets.WIF_PROVIDER }}' # e.g. - projects/123456789/locations/global/workloadIdentityPools/my-pool/providers/my-provider
    service_account: '${{ secrets.WIF_SERVICE_ACCOUNT }}' # e.g. -

To find the WIF_PROVIDER value, head to Workload Identity Federation in the console and click into the pool you setup earlier:

Workload Identity Federation pool

On the right hand side in the Providers tab, press the edit icon:

Edit Workload identity federation provider

Copy the URL shown under Default audience. You just need the string starting from projects/ so you can remove

Copy default audience URL

To add a Github secret, navigate to the Settings tab in your Github repo and go into Secrets in the left nav:

Github secrets

Then press the 'New repository secret' button and add the WIF_PROVIDER value.

The WIF_SERVICE_ACCOUNT is the email address of the service account you created in the previous step above.

To find this, head to Service Accounts in the GCP console and you'll see a list of your service accounts. Grab the email address of the service account you created:

GCP service accounts

Add this email address as another Github secret for WIF_SERVICE_ACCOUNT.

In Github, you now just need to commit the Github Acton you've created:

Commit to Github

You'll now see the workflow running and deploying to Cloud Run!


Every time you now make a commit to the main branch of your project, it will roll out a new deployment to Cloud Run.

And that's it! Your NestJS app is now deployed to Cloud Run and will continuously deploy with commits to your main branch.

Here's a couple of extra resources related to deploying to production that might be helpful:

NestJS logo
Get Free NestJS Cheat SheetGet access to my free NestJS cheat sheet and learn tips and advanced techniques to improve your developer workflow and NestJS applications in production.